Thursday, August 10, 2017

HEAT FOR TOMORROW

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HEAT FOR TOMORROW

Many materials used in our industrial world require energy from mining to manufacturing for processing and transportation.  The energy for some of these products is in the form of high temperatures.   1100°C - 2000°F

There are proposals that solar and wind energy collecting devices can provide the energy to maintain the industrial world.  To look at this possibility, solar electric panels, wind turbines and concentrated solar installations in the form of parabolic trough collectors (PTC) have been assessed.

The energy requirements in 2010 for the following essential components of our industrial world are provided: steel, aluminum, chromium, copper, manganese, cement and glass.  This energy would be mining, processing and transporting to name some.  Other important components of the industrialized world such as nickel and cobalt are not considered because they are part of the high temperature processing of other ore metals.

The kWh output and area required for installations of solar electric panels, wind turbines and PTC has been researched.   This then is divided into the energy (exajoules converted to kWh) required for global production of each material in 2010.

ExaJoules = 1000000000000000000

1.0E-18 exajoule = 2.7777777777778E-7 kilowatt hours = .00000028 kilowatt hours.

Sources:
Smil, Vaclav.  2014. Smil, Vaclav.  2014. Making the Modern World: Materials and Dematerialization.
“Net energy analysis for concentrated solar power plants in northern Chile” 


[] Solar Electric Panels []
Using the Topaz Solar installation as the example,
To provide the energy in electrical units for these
Seven essential materials would require
121,214.45 square miles of solar electric collectors
And 114,834,742,506 panels.

 
Three installations are used as examples

Shepard’s Flat Wind Farm
Alta Wind Energy Center
London Offshore Array

To provide the energy in electricity
for the named seven essential materials would require:

Shepard’s Flat Wind Farm
257,472 square miles and 2,807,276 wind turbines

Alta Wind Energy Center
30,985 square miles and 3,718,200 wind turbines

London Offshore Array
312,315 square miles and 797,400 wind turbines

)) PARABOLIC TROUGH COLLECTORS ((
PTC

Two installations are used as examples

To provide the energy in electricity for
the seven named essential materials would require:

Andasol Solar Power Station
77,183.4 square miles of PTCs

Solana Generating Station
52,791 square miles of PTCs


ON TO THE EXAMPLES

Solar Electric Panels:
Topaz Solar Farm (550-megawatt photovoltaic power station in San Luis Obispo, CA) 
9 million solar panels
550 MW Capacity
9.5 square miles
Annual output, 1,301 GWh (125 MW avg. power).
Website topazsolar.com



1,301 GWh = 1301000000 kWh
1.66111E+13kWh (total from chart)
divided by 1301000000 kWh
Equals 12759.42
Area needed
12759.42 times 9.5 square miles
121214.45 Square Miles of Solar Electric Collectors

Panels needed
9,000,000 times 12759.42
114,834,742,506 Panels

The sun shines during the day, not every day.

So of course the energy would need to be stored

Most high temperature kilns run 24/7,

365 days/year for up to 18 years.



The output of a wind turbine depends on the turbine's size and the wind's speed through the rotor. An average onshore wind turbine with a capacity of 2.5–3 MW can produce more than 6 million kWh in a year – enough to supply 1,500 average EU households with electricity.
www.ewea.org/wind-energy-basics/faq/

The original "Alta-Oak Creek Mojave Project" plan consisted of up to 320 wind turbines occupying a 9,000-acre (36 km2) area while producing 800 MW (1,100,000 hp) of power.

<><><><><><><><> 
Every wind turbine has a range of wind speeds, typically around 30 to 55 mph, in which it will produce at its rated, or maximum, capacity. At slower wind speeds, the production falls off dramatically. If the wind speed decreases by half, power production decreases by a factor of eight. On average, therefore, wind turbines do not generate near their capacity. Industry estimates project an annual output of 30-40%, but real-world experience shows that annual outputs of 15-30% of capacity are more typical.
With a 25% capacity factor, a 1.5-MW turbine would produce
1.5 MW × 365 days × 24 hours × 25% = 3,285 MWh = 3,285,000 kWh

<><><><><><><><> 

 
How much land is needed for a wind turbine?
In an array that can take advantage of the wind from any direction, the GE needs 82 acres and the Vestas V90 111 acres per tower. In practice, the area varies, averaging about 50 acres per megawatt of capacity. On mountain ridges, the turbines are generally squeezed in at about 10 MW per mile.

Shepherds Flat wind farm is being developed in Oregon, US. The 845MW project will be the largest wind farm in the world. .  .  .  Annual output of the Shepherds Flat wind farm will be 1,797GWh. 
The project includes 338 wind turbines, with a 2.5MW capacity each
Shepherds Flat will cover an area of 80 square kilometres  (31 square miles)

SHEPARD'S FLAT WIND FARM



1.66111E+13kWh (from chart) divided by
2000000000.kWh
Equals
8305.55 more to provide for energy required

Area Needed
80 square kilometres = 30.8882 square miles
8305.55 times 31 square miles
257472 square miles of wind turbines
Turbines needed
338 times 8305.55
2807276 Wind Turbines

ALTA WIND FARM


1.66111E+13kWh (from chart) divided by
2680600000kWh
Equals
6197 more to provide for energy required

Area Needed
3200 acres = 30.8882 square miles
6197 times 5 square miles
30985 square miles of wind turbines

Turbines needed
600 times 6197
3718200 Wind Turbines

LONDON ARRAY OFFSHORE




.66111E+13kWh (from chart) divided by
2500000000kWh Equals
6645 more to provide for energy required

Area Needed
122 square kilometers = 47 square miles
6645 times 47 square miles
312315 square miles of wind turbines

Turbines needed
120 times 6645
797400 Wind Turbines

The wind does not blow constantly nor consistently.

So of course the energy would need to be stored

Most high temperature kilns operate

24/7, 365 days a year for up to 18 years.



________________________________________


PARABOLIC TROUGH COLLECTORS
PTC

ANDASOL SOLAR POWER STATION

 
2.3 square miles (1483 acres)   
Annual output 495 GWh


.66111E+13kWh (from chart) divided by
495000000kWh Equals
33558 more to provide for energy required

Area Needed
33558 times 2.3 square miles
77183.4 square miles of PTCs






SOLANA GENERATING STATION


en/386613/5/Solana_arial_photo_%2810-09-13%29.jpg

Covers an area of 1,920 acres


.66111E+13kWh (from chart) divided by
944000000kWh Equals
17597 more to provide for energy required

Area Needed
17597 times 3 square miles
52791 square miles of PTCs


The sun shines during the day, not every day.
So of course the energy would need to be stored
Most high temperature kilns operate 24/7,
365 days a year for up to 18 years.


http://www.jewelryartistsnetwork.com/index/metals-melting-temperatures/










There are many other critical components of our global industrialized world that require industrial heat (lead, silver, tin, food processing) that are right at the top heating limit of solar devices.  They must also be included in an all “renewable” future. If only half of important materials were provided, what would our world be like?


IN AN INDUSTRIALIZED SOCIETY, IT FALLS TO THE PROMOTERS OF A FUTURE FOR “RENEWABLE”
ENERGY TO SHOW HOW THESE ESSENTIAL
 MATERIALS AND SO MUCH ELSE CAN BE PROVIDED.


 




6 comments:

  1. excellent work!

    well, what else is needed to understand that an industrial society can never
    be operated with so called renewable energy devices?

    michael

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. What is needed Michael is psychological. It is hard to wrap our heads around the demise of our industrial way.

      Delete
    2. The HOT PiP understand nothing.
      The Blog might benefit from a bit of editing.
      I found the presentation of the numbers difficult to understand.
      http://www.ecoglobe.ch/energy/e/rene9209.htm
      http://www.ecoglobe.ch/energy/e/rene1d15.htm
      http://www.ecoglobe.ch/energy/e/life-cycles.htm

      Delete
    3. I left the mailing list that you took over because almost if not every comment you made was critical and negative. You confirm my decision.

      Delete
  2. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  3. The standard answer by the People in Power is Hope Optimism Technology.
    We'll HOTly manage, they say, if not tomorrow, then the day after tomorrow.
    The HOT PiP understand nothing, Michael Dittmar!

    ReplyDelete