Friday, July 14, 2017

FURNACES OF INDUSTRY




In the USA –
“Glass manufacturing accounted for 1% of total industrial energy use in EIA's most recent survey of the manufacturing sector. Overall fuel use is dominated by natural gas (73%) and electricity (24%), with the remaining share (3%) from several other fuels. Natural gas use at glass manufacturing facilities in 2010 was 146 trillion Btu, about 143 billion cubic feet. 

If we convert the natural gas to kWh, we get:
143 billion cubic feet Natural Gas  =  41,909,163,034.63 kWh





Annual output, 1,301 GWh (125 MW avg. power). Website topazsolar.com. Topaz Solar Farm is a 550-megawatt (MW) photovoltaic power station in San Luis Obispo ...
Construction cost‎: ‎$2.4 billion
Construction began‎: ‎2011
Annual output‎: ‎1,301 GWh; (125 MW avg. power)
Capacity factor‎: ‎24.4% (2014-2015)


From above:
143 billion cubic feet Natural Gas  = 41,909,163,034.63 kWh
The Annual output of Topaz Solar Farm is:
1,301 GWh  = 1301000000 kWh
It would take 32 of these installations to replace the energy
used for just the glass made in the USA in the year 2010. 
That would be 288,000,000 solar panels.
10 Mahattans
Almost 46,000 Football fields.

The sun shines during the day and not every day.
So of course the energy would need to be stored because glass factories run 24/7 365 days/year for up to 18 years.

The USA is only a part of the glass manufacturer globally.

Even though flat glass accounts only about 16% of the global glass industry, most information on market structure focus on this segment. The global market for flat glass in 2010 was approximately 56 million tonnes. This is dominated by Europe, China and North America, which together account for around three-quarters of global demand for flat glass. Of total global market demand in 2010, it is estimated that 33 million tonnes was for high quality float glass, 1 million tonnes for sheet glass and 2 million tonnes for rolled glass. The remaining 20 million tonnes reflects demand for lower quality float, produced mainly in China. The significance of China as a market for glass has been increasing rapidly since the early 1990s as the country has become more open to foreign investment and the economy has expanded. In the early 1990s China accounted for about one fifth of world glass demand, but now accounts for 51%.

.  .  .  the energy intensity of continuous glass furnaces in Europe and the United States were reported as 4-10 GJ/t of container glass and 5-8.5 GJ/t of flat glass.


Each week, between 350 and 400 float glass lines
around the world yield about 1,000,000 tons of glass.

The Float Glass Process
The dominant method of making flat glass is the float-glass process. First, after mixing the raw ingredients in the batch house, they are fed into the furnace and melted at 1550 °C.   [2822F]
Thereafter, the melted glass flows onto the top of a bath filled with molten tin at 1050 °C. [1922F]  The atmosphere in the bath is a mix of nitrogen and hydrogen that prevents the oxidation of the tin. Because tin has a higher density than glass, the glass spreads out on top of the tin, giving it a smooth, even surface. Some tin incorporates into the surface of the glass in contact with the bath, this side of the glass is referred to the tin side, as opposed to the air side. Next, the glass passes into the annealing lehr, a long oven with a temperature gradient, where the glass is slowly cooled to 40 °C to prevent it from cracking [14]. It is also possible to apply a coating (anti-reflection, TCO, etc.) either within the tin bath or just after the tin bath via chemical vapor
deposition. Finally, the glass is inspected for defects, coated with Lucite separating media to prevent scratches when the glass is packed and shipped, and cut to the required size.



video

How Glass Is Made
1.58






Float plants normally are sited near a silica source, and often near a customers facility, to minimize transportation costs, which can be 15% of total costs. Also, they often are built in areas with low electricity costs, since the float process is energy-intensive; a plant uses 14 million therms (410 million kilowatt hours) of energy per year.

Most photovoltaic modules use glass. Crystalline-silicon technologies use glass cover
plates to provide structural strength to the module and to encapsulate the cells. Thin-film solar technologies also often use glass as the substrate (or superstrate) on which the device is built [3]. In fact, for the majority of solar modules in production, glass is the single largest component by mass and in double glass thin-film PV, and it comprises 97% of the module.


It is important to understand that this is not the only high temperature process required for an industrial world.  See chart below. 











Friday, May 26, 2017

“Renewable” Future?


“Renewable” Future?


There is a hope/belief among many “renewable” energy promoters that these technologies can reproduce themselves along with many of the needs of our present living standard.  I have been down these paths with people who want to believe we can and should continue business as usual.

They avoid hard questions and they answer with vague engineering possibilities or tomorrow's technology or human brilliance or innovation or you can't know the future replies. Looking at the whole picture is out of the question because it challenges their solution.

This essay challenges that hope which is really a continuation of consumerism and the status quo.

This essay looks at the energy used in copper, glass and other common tools of everyday life.  There are also videos of other necessay parts of our life styles - WINDOW SCREEN – A SYRINGE – MEDICAL PLASTIC TUBING - A CPU FOR YOUR COMPUTER – AN ELECTRIC MOTOR – A FAN (GLOBAL WARMING) - FARM MACHINERY. 


LOOK AT ALL THE MACHINERY NEEDED FOR THESE VARIOUS PARTS OF OUR LIFESTYLE AND CONSIDER THEM BEING MINED, FABRICATED, CONSTRUCTED, RUN AND REPAIRED USING “RENEWABLE” ENERGY SOURCES AS WE NOW DEFINE THEM.

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COPPER

Copper has been in use at least 10,000 years,
but more than 97% of all copper ever mined
and smelted has been extracted since 1900.














FROM CHART ABOVE

Tonnes – a unit of weight equal to 1,000 kilograms (2,205 lb).
19,100,000 Tonnes in 2015
gj to btus =  947,817 btus      1 GJ = 277.78 kWh

21,057,750 tons in 2015 (converted)

IN 2015

1 GJ = 277.78 kWh
Electricity 41.08 GJ/T  
Equals 11,411.2024 kWh per Ton
Equals 240,294,247,338.60 kWh

1 GJ = 9.48043 therms
Natural Gas 13.83 GJ/T
Equals 2,760,847,910 Therms or 27,608,479.1 cubic feet

1GJ to btus = 947,817 btus
Diesel/Oil 7.60 GJ/T
Equals 151,687,590,081,300 BTUs or 27,324,377 Barrels of Oil



In 2014, around 34 percent of domestic copper was recovered from recycled material with the rest generated from newly mined ore. While wire supply is produced predominantly from newly refined copper, nearly two-thirds of the amount used by other segments of industry, including copper and brass mills, ingot makers, foundries and others comes from recycled material.
Copper in materials

Currently, a total of around 9 million tonnes of copper per year come from the recycling of “old” scrap (copper contained in end-of-life products) and “new” scrap (generated during production and downstream manufacturing processes).
http://copperalliance.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/ica-copper-recycling-1405-A4-low-res.pdf






RECYCLED COPPER

106.8 GJ/TONNE
1 GJ = 277.78 kWh
EACH TONNE REQUIRES 29,666.904 kWh

SO 9 MILLION TONNES REQUIRES 267,002,136,000 kWh


Roughly 7% (2008) of the world’s
energy is used by the metals sector,
and consumption will increase due to
falling ore grades.
http://www.metalbulletin.com/events/download.ashx/document/speaker/6489/a0ID000000X0jDyMAJ/Presentation


The U.S. produces roughly 8 percent of the world’s copper supply.
In 2014, U.S. recyclers processed 820,000 metric tons of copper for domestic use and export.
Given a single family home of approximately 2,100 square feet, the copper content is estimated as follows:
       195 pounds – building wire
       151 pounds – plumbing tube, fittings, valves
       24 pounds – plumbers’ brass goods
       47 pounds – built-in appliances
       12 pounds – builders hardware
       10 pounds – other wire and tube

The copper content associated with household appliances can be generalized as follows:
       52 pounds – unitary air conditioner
       48 pounds – unitary heat pump
       5.0 pounds – dishwasher
       4.8 pounds – refrigerator/freezer
       4.4 pounds – clothes washer
       2.7 pounds – dehumidifier
       2.3 pounds – disposer
       2.0 pounds – clothes dryer
       1.3 pounds – range

Copper in materials

http://www.indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?c=xx&v=81


Read more: How copper is made – material, used, processing, steps, product, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of copper, Quality Control, Byproducts/Waste, The Future http://www.madehow.com/Volume-4/Copper.html#ixzz1eeSJyEum



03/ica-copper-recycling-1405-A4-low-res.pdf






From:


It is well known that there is no such thing as a free lunch. However, it is somewhat less known that there is no such thing as free energy, either.
Despite all the hoopla about new renewable energy sources being “free” and “practically unlimited” in a sense that no one owns the Sun nor the wind, the fact remains that in order to harness these energies, we need an immense construction effort. This, unfortunately, is neither free nor unrestricted in the material sense. As the above graph taken from a recent study commentary by Vidal, Goffé & Arndt in Nature Geoscience (2013) shows, projected renewable energy deployments would very soon outstrip the current global production of several key materials. By the author’s estimates, if we are to follow the lead of renewables only-advocates, renewable energy projects would consume the entire annual copper, concrete and steel production by 2035 at the latest, annihilate aluminum by around 2030, and gobble up all the glass before 2020.
Certainly, material efficiency can improve greatly, substitutes can be found, and production can be increased. Nevertheless, the scale of the challenge is nothing less than daunting: the authors also provide a handy overview of material requirements per installed capacity, from which I calculated a range of figures for energy production.
If we compare renewable energies to that other low-carbon alternative, nuclear power, per energy unit produced, wind and solar electricity production requires
   16-148 times more concrete
   57-661 times more steel
   43-819 times more aluminum
   16-2286 times more copper
   4000-73600 times more glass.
(The figures assume a lifetime of 20-30 years for renewables and 60 years for nuclear, and the following capacity factors: wind 0.3, solar PV 0.15, CSP 0.4, nuclear 0.8.)







For economies of scale and energy use
Some common continuous processes are the following:
·       Oil refining
·       Chemicals
·       Synthetic fibers
·       Fertilizers
·       Pulp and paper
·       Blast furnace (iron)
·       Metal smelting
·       Power stations
·       Natural gas processing
·       Sanitary waste water treatment
·       Continuous casting of steel
·       Rotary kilns for calcining lime or cement
·       Float glass
They run 24/7 365 days

GLASS

Let’s take a look at this wonderful material.

Float glass for windows improves homes and other buildings enormously.  Think about what your home would be without glass.  So this is not an essay against glass.  It isn’t even an essay against using glass for solar energy collecting devices whether they are for heating hot air, hot water or making electricity.

These devices use low iron hardened stippled glass.  It is important to understand the components of the energy collecting devices so we don’t designate them with false labels such as green, renewable or sustainable.  This essay looks at the energy, equipment and the economies of scale in making float glass.

The process to get glass is to find silica deposits, dig them up, crush them, move them to the factory, powder them in a ball mill, then put the powdered material through the production line.  Here is some of the process and equipment.   This is big, expensive and energy intensive equipment.




> CLICK THE YOUTUBE LINK TO VIEW VIDEO <


THIS IS A FOUR MINUTE FILM THAT WALKS YOU THROUGH

THE MAKING OF FLOAT GLASS FROM MINE TO FINISH PRODUCT

Float Glass Manufacturing Process
4 minutes






ONE SHEET FOR SOLAR PANEL
27 MJ/kg for Hardened Float Glass
1 MJ = .28 kWh
Possible solar glazing energy
One 77” x 39” pane = 50 lbs = 22.6796 kg
One pane = 171.46 kWh


TOTAL FLAT GLASS 2009 PRODUCTION
52,000,000 tonnes = 52,000,000,000 kg
1 MJ = .28 kWh
2009 production = 390,000000,312.00 kWh


VIDEOS


So I sit here at my computer looking out the window.  It is cool outside so the window isn’t open.  During the summer, with the window open the screens keep the bugs out. I would have a small fan blowing air around the room.

Don’t look at the product.  Consider the equipment and energy necessary to make the product.  Consider the equipment and energy required to make the equipment and energy that made the product.
I ask how do I get these comforts and devices from a total “renewable” world?




> CLICK THE YOUTUBE LINKS TO VIEW VIDEOS <



Making window screen
1.24 minutes


Stainless steel wire mesh manufacturing(stainless steel weaving machine)
.56 minutes


How a CPU is made
10:15 minutes


How Electric Motors are made
https://youtu.be/bCwu5KPVv541>
4.50 minutes


Electric fan production process
https://youtu.be/pH95KZos-q0
2.14 minutes

We haven’t even considered growing food !



Big farming machines
1.38 minutes


OUR MEDICAL WORLD IS A MAJOR
PART OF OUR LIFESTYLE
X RAY MACHINES, CT SCANNERS,
PHARMACEUTICALS
AND SO MUCH MORE.



Syringe production from glass melting to the clean room
1.18

I AM ON OXYGEN SO THIS TUBING IS A CRITICAL PART OF MY LIFE


High Speed Medical Tubing Line running at 153m/min (500ft/min) on a PAK350 medical extruder. Cincinnati Milacron can supply a variety of Medical Extruders and Medical Extrusion Lines across a wide range of applications from small catheter, single lumen tubes, draw-down tubing for vascular applications and multi lumen tubing running at low speeds to Dialysis and Drug Delivery tubing running at high throughputs up to 200 metres per minute.
1.46





IT FALLS TO THE PROMOTERS OF A FUTURE FOR “RENEWABLE” ENERGY TO
SHOW HOW THESE AND SO MUCH ELSE CAN BE PROVIDED.